Autonomic Neuroscience, 90(1–2), 106–115p. (2001) DOI:10.1016/S1566-0702(01)00275-2

Non-linear dynamics of cardiovascular system in humans exposed to repetitive apneas modeling obstructive sleep apnea: aggregated time series data analysis

A. Trzebski, M. Smietanowski

Objective: Testing the hypothesis that alterations in non-linear dynamics of the cardiovascular variability appear in healthy, awake subjects during voluntary apnea. Subjects and Methods: Ten young subjects performed 20 apneas 60 s each separated by 1 min free breathing. Inter-beat interval (IBI) measured as RR-interval in ECG, systolic (SYS) and diastolic (DIAS) arterial blood pressure, stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO) and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were non-invasively recorded and computed by Portapress 2 system. Correlation dimension according to Grassberger-Proccacia algorithm (CD) and ratio of % determinism versus % recurrence (RDR) computed from recurrence plot according to Webber and Zbiluth [J. Appl. Physiol. 76 (1994) 965] were used as the indices of chaos and complexity. Sequential time series of cardiovascular variables in consecutive 60-s apneas and inter-apnea free breathings were separately windowed and aggregated. CD and RDR of aggregated apneic time series were compared with CD and RDR values of aggregated time series of inter-apnea free breathing, 10 min at rest and 10 min recovery. Reliability of the aggregation method of sequential time series was tested on transformed simulated data generated by Lorenz model. Error in CD and RDR estimation did not exceed 5% and 1%, respectively. Results: CD of cardiovascular variables computed from aggregated apneas was significantly reduced and RDR augmented versus control and recovery periods. CD and RDR values of inter-apnea phases were in between those in control and during apneas. Time domain linear variance (SD) was increased during aggregated apneas. Conclusions: Signal dynamics dependent windowing and data aggregation could be a useful tool for non-linear analysis of short repeatable sequential time series; time domain linear variability of the cardiovascular dynamics is augmented while complexity reduced during apneic chemoreceptor stimulation; alterations in non-linear dynamics of cardiovascular variables during apneas in healthy normotensive subjects may suggest an early sign of a mechanism implicated in arterial hypertension in OSAS.

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