Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing, 30(4), 451–466p. (2016) DOI:10.1007/s10877-015-9738-z

A comparison of different synchronization measures in electroencephalogram during propofol anesthesia

Z. Liang, Y. Ren, J. Yan, D. Li, L. J. Voss, J. W. Sleigh, X. Li

Electroencephalogram (EEG) synchronization is becoming an essential tool to describe neurophysiological mechanisms of communication between brain regions under general anesthesia. Different synchronization measures have their own properties to reflect the changes of EEG activities during different anesthetic states. However, the performance characteristics and the relations of different synchronization measures in evaluating synchronization changes during propofol-induced anesthesia are not fully elucidated. Two-channel EEG data from seven volunteers who had undergone a brief standardized propofol anesthesia were then adopted to calculate eight synchronization indexes. We computed the prediction probability (PK) of synchronization indexes with Bispectral Index (BIS) and propofol effect-site concentration (Ceff) to quantify the ability of the indexes to predict BIS and Ceff. Also, box plots and coefficient of variation were used to reflect the different synchronization changes and their robustness to noise in awake, unconscious and recovery states, and the Pearson correlation coefficient (R) was used for assessing the relationship among synchronization measures, BIS and Ceff. Permutation cross mutual information (PCMI) and determinism (DET) could predict BIS and follow Ceff better than nonlinear interdependence (NI), mutual information based on kernel estimation (KerMI) and cross correlation. Wavelet transform coherence (WTC) in α and β frequency bands followed BIS and Ceff better than that in other frequency bands. There was a significant decrease in unconscious state and a significant increase in recovery state for PCMI and NI, while the trends were opposite for KerMI, DET and WTC. Phase synchronization based on phase locking value (PSPLV) in δ, θ, α and γ1 frequency bands dropped significantly in unconscious state, whereas it had no significant synchronization in recovery state. Moreover, PCMI, NI, DET correlated closely with each other and they had a better robustness to noise and higher correlation with BIS and Ceff than other synchronization indexes. Propofol caused EEG synchronization changes during the anesthetic period. Different synchronization measures had individual properties in evaluating synchronization changes in different anesthetic states, which might be related to various forms of neural activities and neurophysiological mechanisms under general anesthesia.

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