Comptes Rendus de l'Acad?ie des Sciences - Series III - Sciences de la Vie, 324(9), 773–793p. (2001)

Is there chaos in the brain? I. Concepts of nonlinear dynamics and methods of investigation

P. Faure, H. Korn

In the light of results obtained during the last two decades in a number of laboratories, it appears that some of the tools of nonlinear dynamics, first developed and improved for the physical sciences and engineering, are well-suited for studies of biological phenomena. In particular it has become clear that the different regimes of activities undergone by nerve cells, neural assemblies and behavioural patterns, the linkage between them, and their modifications over time, cannot be fully understood in the context of even integrative physiology, without using these new techniques. This report, which is the first of two related papers, is aimed at introducing the non expert to the fundamental aspects of nonlinear dynamics, the most spectacular aspect of which is chaos theory. After a general history and definition of chaos the principles of analysis of time series in phase space and the general properties of chaotic trajectories will be described as will be the classical measures which allow a process to be classified as chaotic in ideal systems and models. We will then proceed to show how these methods need to be adapted for handling experimental time series; the dangers and pitfalls faced when dealing with non stationary and often noisy data will be stressed, and specific criteria for suspecting determinism in neuronal cells and/or assemblies will be described. We will finally address two fundamental questions, namely i) whether and how can one distinguish, deterministic patterns from stochastic ones, and, ii) what is the advantage of chaos over randomness: we will explain why and how the former can be controlled whereas, notoriously, the latter cannot be tamed. In the second paper of the series, results obtained at the level of single cells and their membrane conductances in real neuronal networks and in the study of higher brain functions, will be critically reviewed. It will be shown that the tools of nonlinear dynamics can be irreplaceable for revealing hidden mechanisms subserving, for example, neuronal synchronization and periodic oscillations. The benefits for the brain of adopting chaotic regimes with their wide range of potential behaviours and their aptitude to quickly react to changing conditions will also be considered.


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